How Science Makes Discoveries

The Scientific Revolution by Henry David Thoreau describes science as the process by which new scientific discoveries are made. Discovery science is an approach to science that emphasizes the accumulation of collected evidence through an extended series of methodical studies in science and the application of that evidence to produce new predictions or theories.

The Scientific Process of science discoveriesUnlike deductive science, which assumes that any fact can simply be tested and accepted, scientific discovery is typically empirical, meaning that it is based on extensive research and hypothesis-based testing of a variety of scientific methods. The philosophy of discovery science seeks to balance deductive and experimental science by encouraging the use of both to develop generalizations and falsification in science.

Scientific revolution: The birth of ideas, theories, and inventions.

The scientific revolution was also the birth of “intellectual property” – that is, ideas, theories, inventions, etc. that can be protected from competitors. A hundred years ago, a patent was a privilege granted only to the maker or developer of an invention; today it extends to any discovery made by an individual.  The protection of ideas allows the practice of science to be separated from the methodology of the scientific method. This has led to science being viewed as a system of methodologically distinct disciplines rather than a unified field. In this regard, the discipline of science has come to be known as “social science“.

Science Discoveries Process of making an invention.

The process of making an invention, a new idea, or a scientific discovery involves coming up with the idea or theory, having adequate information and data to support the new idea, preparing for demonstration, and finally developing and testing the invention, idea, or discovery. Discovery in science refers not only to the experimental verification of a new theory. It also involves the subsequent acceptance of the new idea by other scientists. This entire process can take decades. Nevertheless, it marks the beginning of a new history of science.

It is unlikely that a new invention, a new idea, or a new scientific theory will be accepted by a university without a lengthy process of review and evaluation by a panel of reviewers. When a university approves a new idea or invention, the idea is formally added to the list of approved scientific projects. The length of time a new idea is placed on the list depends on the sensitivity of the topic and the limited space available for review by a university.

A further process to evaluate the new idea.

Once a new idea, new theory, or new discovery is placed on the approved science project list, researchers proceed to test the validity of the new theory, concept, or discovery. Early research scientists are often involved in the process of testing the validity of a new idea. Other researchers may not be involved in the initial testing and evaluation. The validity of the new idea is tested through an elaborate scientific process that includes experimental testing and/or reexamination of previously published research. If a new idea is supported by sufficient evidence, either from a significant number of researchers or from a significant number of experimental studies, the idea is submitted for further study. In the course of this study, the validity of the new idea is generally confirmed by more extensive research.

Science makes discoveries to conduct new inventions.

After a new theory, a new technique, or a new research technique has been accepted as science, it is formally accepted as science by most people and organizations. In the scientific community, formal acceptance means that the idea, technique, or research method is capable of making a significant contribution to the field of science. In most cases, fields with a new theory or technique are not immediately available. However, in more developed fields, the field has been sufficiently tested and the evidence supports the new principle or technique.

The way researchers solve new scientific truths by Scientific discoveries.

Although new scientific concepts, techniques, or discoveries may seem simple and obvious to some, others were not so obvious or common before the adoption of a new scientific truth. For example, the common idea that light is a form of energy existed before Newtonian mechanics and the principle of relativity. Science deals with theories, principles, and experiments to explain observations and test theories. Experiments are designed to provide information relevant to a particular theory. After adequate testing, scientists are then able to remove the influence of other causes of the data and determine if the original concept was correct. Without adequate testing, theories cannot be tested and changed.

Discovery stories reflect the process of science. They show how theories have been tested and investigated, how the results have changed the way science works, and what changes must take place for science to consider a new theory. Stories can serve as great sources of inspiration, teach about the process of science, and encourage students to study science. In the classroom

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